Why does concrete buckle?

Heat causes materials to expand. When concrete slabs expand beyond the space in the joints they press against each other, causing the surface to buckle at the joint or in a weak spot within the slab.  When concrete slabs expand beyond the space in the joints they press against each other, causing the surface to buckle at the joint or in a weak spot within the slab. Engineers design concrete structures with expansion joints that allow the structure to expand and contract without buckling. However, if expansion joints are not inserted, or if these expansion joints get filled in with foreign material, it could cause the concrete to buckle when the temperature increases.

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